The hostilities that had marked relations between Soviet and Western powers since 1917 gradually reappeared at the end of the Second World War. This east-west divide has been fuelled by conflicting interests and political ideologies. Clashes took place over peace agreements and reparations and tensions were exacerbated by events such as the Berlin blockade in April 1948, the coup in Czechoslovakia in June 1948 and direct threats to the sovereignty of Norway, Greece and Turkey. The Washington Gold Agreement was signed on September 26, 1999 in Washington, D.C. at the annual meeting of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and U.S. Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers and Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan were in attendance.  The second version of the agreement was signed in 2004 and the agreement was renewed in 2009. 4. In response to these concerns, 15 European central banks – those of the 11 eurozone countries and Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom and the European Central Bank – have drawn up the Central Bank`s first gold agreement, “CBGA1”. The agreement was signed in Washington DC at the annual meeting of the International Monetary Fund in 1999. In August 2009, 19 banks renewed the agreement and pledged not to sell more than 400 tonnes of gold by September 2014.
The International Monetary Fund has not signed this agreement.  The Washington Agreement, originally signed in 1989, is a multilateral agreement between bodies responsible for the accreditation or recognition of engineering qualifications at tertiary level in their field of competence and which have chosen to work together to support the mobility of professional engineers. . . .