However, the Kyoto Protcol targets are being challenged by climate change deities, who condemn strong scientific evidence of the human impact on climate change. An eminent scholar believes that these climate change deniers are “good” in violation of Roussau`s idea of the social contract, which is an implicit agreement between members of a society to coordinate efforts in the name of general social utility. The movement to reject climate change is hampering efforts to reach an agreement on climate change as a global collective society.  For the first time in history, the agreement brings together all the nations of the world into one agreement to combat climate change. Barker et al. (2007, p. 79) have evaluated the literature on cost estimates of the Kyoto Protocol.  Due to the United States` non-participation in the Kyoto Treaty, the cost estimates were significantly lower than the estimates of the previous IPCC Third Assessment Report. Without the participation of the United States and using the Kyoto flexible mechanisms fully, the cost was estimated to be less than 0.05% of Schedule B GDP. This is compared to previous estimates of 0.1 to 1.1%. Without the use of flexible mechanisms, costs were estimated to be less than 0.1% without U.S. participation.
This is compared to previous estimates of 0.2 to 2%. These cost estimates were considered to be based on a great deal of evidence and convergence in the literature. The agreement commits all countries to reduce their emissions and cooperate to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time. The agreement provides developed countries with a means to assist developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts, while establishing a framework for monitoring and reporting transparently on developing countries` climate goals. Professor John Shepherd of the National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, says the agreement contains some welcome aspirations, but few realize how difficult it will be to achieve the goals. In 2011, Canada, Japan and Russia said they would not meet other Kyoto targets.  The Canadian government announced on December 12, 2011, effective December 15, 2012, its possible withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol, effective December 15, 2012 Canada has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions to 6% below 1990 levels by 2012, but in 2009 emissions were 17% to 190 higher. The Harper government has prioritized oil sands development in Alberta and de-introduced the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
Environment Minister Peter Kent called Canada`s responsibility for “enormous financial sanctions” under the treaty unless he withdrew.   He also suggested that the recently signed Durban Agreement could provide another way forward.  The Harper government has said it will find a “Made in Canada” solution. Canada`s decision was generally not well received by representatives of other ratification countries.  In addition to the Kyoto Protocol (and its amendment) and the Paris Agreement, the parties to the convention agreed to other commitments at the conferences of the parties to the UNFCCC. These include the Bali Action Plan (2007),  the Copenhagen Agreement (2009),  on the Cancun Agreements (2010),  and the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (2012).  1992: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development is being held in Rio de Janeiro. It is the result of, among other things, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Commitments made so far could lead to an increase in global temperatures of up to 2.7 degrees Celsius, but the agreement sets out a roadmap for accelerating progress. Since May 2013, 191 countries and a regional economic organization (EC) have ratified the agreement, representing more than 61.6% of schedule I emissions in 1990.  One of the 191 ratifying countries, Canada, has relinquished the protocol. The aim of avoiding what scientists consider to be a dangerous and irreversible scale of climate change – which is achieved with a warming of about 2oC during pre-industrial periods – is